Glossary - R

Random Access Memory (RAM)

Random Access Memory or RAM, enables access to any stored information, in constant time without dependence on its location. RAM is the most common type of memory found in computers and other devices like printers. It is the main memory available to programs. This fast form of data storage is based on integrated circuits where the data are stored, so the information are dependent on power and the data are lost if the power is removed, that is why the RAM memory is associated with volatile types of memory. The two main forms of RAM are Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) and Dynamic Random Access Memory  (DRAM). While DRAM supports access times of 60 nanoseconds, SRAM is faster and gives access time as low as 10 nanoseconds. 

Recycle bin

Many graphical operating systems use the term “recycle bin” or “trash” for a storage location that stores files prior to permanent deletion. Once a file is sent to the recycle bin/trash, the data is removed from the original directory location. However, it can still be accessed and restored in the event of accidental deletion because a record is kept of each file and/or directory's original location within the recycle bin/trash folder. On certain operating systems, files must be moved out of the recycle bin/trash before they can be accessed again. A program that includes file manager functionality may or may not send files to the recycle bin/trash, or it may allow the user to choose between these options.

From time to time, the recycle bin/trash must be emptied in order to prevent the accumulation of too much unnecessary data on your hard disk or external hard drive. Once the recycle bin/trash is emptied, the data is permanently deleted.

Remote backup service

A remote, online, or managed backup service is a service that provides users backup or storage space for files in a location reserved by a third-party company or institution. Online backup providers are companies that provide this type of service to end users (or clients), typically for a fee or regular payments. Online backup systems are often set to run on a schedule, generally once a day, and usually at night when the computers aren't being used. Remote backups are typically performed by a special application or tool. This program collects, compresses, encrypts, and transfers the data to the remote backup service provider's servers or off-site hardware. There are many products on the market, all offering different feature sets, service levels, and types of encryption. Providers of this type of service frequently target specific market segments. High-end LAN-based backup systems may offer services such as Active Directory®, client remote control, or open file backups. Consumer online backup companies frequently have beta software offerings and/or free-trial backup services with fewer live support options.

Resolution

The resolution of a computer’s display or monitor is the number of pixels (or maximum image resolution) that can be displayed on the screen. Resolution is often indicated as the number of columns (horizontal, "X"), which is always stated first, and the number of lines (vertical, "Y"). The resolution for older CRT monitors is typically 640 x 480 or 800 x 600. With the introduction of LCD displays came the most common resolutions of 1024 x 768 (XGA / XVGA, eXtended), 1280 x 800 (WXGA Wide XGA, seen especially in laptops), and 1600 x 1200 (UXGA, Ultra-eXtended). Many CAD and video game users employ a resolution of 1600 x 1200 (UXGA, Ultra-eXtended) or higher. With the increasing performance capabilities of modern hardware, especially graphic cards, it is now quite common to see full HD resolution which is 1920 x 1080. If the picture resolution is higher than the physical screen resolution, some systems use the virtual screen. For digital television and HDTV, the typical vertical resolution is720 or 1080 lines.

Revolutions per minute (RPM)

Revolutions per minute (abbreviated rpm, RPM, r/min, or r*min−1) is a unit used to measure rotation frequency. It is mainly used to express the speed at which various mechanical components and machines such as engines, turbines or fans rotate. It specifies the number of full turns of the device, or any part of it, around a fixed axis that are completed during a time span of one minute.

Ribbon

The Microsoft® Ribbon is proprietary technology within the user interface of the Windows® operating system. The ribbon usually appears horizontally at the top of Microsoft® applications (particularly the Microsoft Office® suite) as a series of tabs that provide different functionality. Each tab consists of a group of icons that perform related tasks, such as formatting, tables, edit, view, etc. The ribbon was first introduced in Microsoft Office® 2007. After a positive reception, it was added to other Microsoft® applications. Windows® 7 is equipped with the ribbon, as is WordPad, Paint and Windows Live® Movie Maker.

There are contradictions as to whether or not Microsoft® can claim a patent on a given graphic element. Some experts point to the fact that similar controls debuted earlier in software products such as Borland® Delphi©, Macromedia© Dreamweaver®, Macromedia© HomeSite® and Autodesk® Maya®.

Rogue security software

Rogue security software uses malware or malevolent tools to advertise or install itself or forces computer users to pay to remove nonexistent malware. A trojan is often installed by rogue software when downloading a trial version, or it will run other unwanted actions. Rogue software makers want users to install and purchase their product. A common tactic to install their program, is to display fake Windows dialog boxes or other browser pop-up with messages that entice the user to click on them. Usually a message is displayed such as "WARNING! Your computer is infected with Spyware/Adware/Viruses! Buy [software name] to remove it!", another message is "Click OK to scan your system" without asking to buy the software. Yet another example is "Computer/Internet Connection/OS is not optimized and to Click Here to scan now". Once the user clicks the OK button ing the dialog box, he will be directed to a malicious website, which installs the program. Sometimes, clicking close window or X button in an attempt to close the dialog box will have the same effect. (To circumvent that trick, Press Alt+F4 or use Ctrl-Alt-Delete to access the Task Manager). Some rogue software will download the trial version automatically without any user interaction. In addition to rogue programs being installed, many sites now use a technique to install multiple trojans at once by downloading a dropper first, loading various malware to the unsuspecting user's computer.

Rootkit

A rootkit is a software system containing one or more programs designed to show no indication that a system has been compromised. a rootkit is used to replace essential system executables, which can then conceal processes and files installed by the attacker as well as rootkit itself. A rootkit's intention is to control the operating system. Rootkits obscure their presence on the system through by evading standard operating system security mechanisms. Rootkits can also be trojans, tricking the user into thinking they can be safely run on their systems. This can be achieved by concealing running processes from monitoring programs, or hiding files or system data from the operating system. Rootkits are also capable of installing a "back door" in a system by changing the login mechanism (such as /bin/login) with an executable that accepts a secret login combination, allowing the system to be accessed by an attacker, even if changes are made to the actual accounts on the system.

Originally, rootkits may have been normal applications, designed to take control of a faulty or unresponsive system, but more recently have been produced as malware allowing attackers to gain access to systems undetected. Rootkits exist for a variety of operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows, Linux, Mac OS, and Solaris. Rootkits often install themselves as drivers or kernel modules or modify parts of the operating system, depending on the internal elements of an operating system's mechanisms.

RSS

RSS (originally RDF Site Summary, often dubbed Really Simple Syndication) is a family of XML formats designed to pull news and information from websites and distribute the content to the end user. RSS technology allows Internet users to subscribe to news feeds from sites that offer RSS feeds (a.k.a.  RSS channels). Feeds are usually found on pages where the content is updated often, such as news servers. The RSS format can provide the entire contents of an article or just part of it, such as a reference to the original article or other metadata. The information is sent as an XML file known as an RSS feed, web feed, RSS stream, RSS feed or RSS channel. Originally, this format was used only for the actual transfer of news between servers, so that they could easily refer to current articles on other servers. The aim was for the RSS format to be simple and understandable. The first version of RSS 0.90 was developed by Netscape® in 1999. An RSS reader is software that is designed to work with RSS feeds. The software may be a separate program or a plug-in for another application (typically a web browser or instant messaging program). This functionality can be built directly into another program, or it may be a functionality provided by a web application (e.g., Google Reader™ or Netvibes®).


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